1. Writings

Aarseth, Espen (1997): Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Aarseth, Espen (2007): “Allegories of Space. The Question of Spatiality in Computer Games.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 44-47.

Adams, Ernest (2002): “The Role of Architecture in Video Games.” Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.designersnotebook.com/Columns/047_The_Role_of_Architecture/04....

Adams, Ernest (2003): “The Construction of Ludic Space.” Retrieved September 14, 2008, from http://www.designersnotebook.com/lectures/The_Construction_of_Ludic_Spac....

Adams, Ernest & Rollings, Andrew (2006): Fundamentals of Game Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Adams, Judith A. (1991): The American Amusement Park Industry. A History of Technology and Thrills. Woodbridge, CT: Twayne Publishers.

Addams, Jane (1909): The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Albert, Réka, Jeong, Hawoong & Barabási, Albert-László (2000): “The Internet’s Achilles’ heel: Error and attack tolerance in complex networks.” Nature 406, 378-382.

Alberti, Leon Battista (1435-36/1970): On Painting. Translated with Introduction and Notes by John R. Spencer. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Alexander, Christopher, Ishikawa, Sara & Silverstein, Murray (1977): A Pattern Language. Towns - Buildings - Construction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Andrews, E. Benjamin (1912): History of the United States. Volume V. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Artaud, Antonin (1958): The Theater and Its Double (Richards, Mary Caroline, Trans.). New York, NY: Grove Press.

Asendorf, Christoph (2004): “Raum und Bewegung in der Moderne.” Wolkenkuckucks-heim. Internationale Zeitschrift für Theorie und Wissenschaft der Architektur, 9(1).

Avedon, Elliott M. (1971): “The Structural Elements of Games.” In Avedon, Elliott M. & Sutton-Smith, Brian (eds.), The Study of Games. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Baer, Ralph H. (2005): Videogames: In the Beginning. Springfield, NJ: Rolenta Press.

Bal, Mieke (2001): “Auf die Haut / Unter die Haut: Barockes steigt an die Oberfläche.” In Burgard, Peter J. (ed.), Barock: Neue Sichtweisen einer Epoche. Vienna: Böhlau. pp. 17-51.

Ballagas, Rafael, Kuntze, André & Walz, Steffen P. (2008): “Gaming Tourism: Lessons from Evaluating REXplorer, a Pervasive Game for Tourists.” In Proceedings of the 6th Intl. Conference on Pervasive Computing, May 19-22, Sydney, Australia.

Ballagas, Rafael, Rohs, Michael, Sheridan, Jennifer G. & Borchers, Jan (2005): “Sweep and Point & Shoot. Phonecam-based interactions for large public displays.” In Extended abstracts of CHI ‘05: the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York, NY. pp. 1200–1203.

Ballagas, Rafael & Walz, Steffen P. (2007): “REXplorer: Using Player-Centered Iterative Design Techniques for Pervasive Game Development.” In Magerkurth, Carsten & Röcker, Carsten (eds.), Pervasive Gaming Applications. A Pervasive Gaming Research vol. 2. Aachen: Shaker. pp. 255-284.

Banham, Reyner (1977): “Centre Pompidou.” Architectural Review (161), 270–294.

Bay Area Orienteering Club (1997): “BAOC Member Survey.” Retrieved February 10, 2007, from http://www.baoc.org.

Barab, Sasha A., Ingram-Goble, Adam & Warren, Scott (2008): “Conceptual Play Spaces.” Retrieved August 14, 2008, from http://inkido.indiana.edu/research/onlinemanu/papers/acad_play.pdf.

Barabási, Albert-László (2003): Linked: The New Science of Networks. How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life. New York. NY: Plume.

Barabási, Albert-László & Albert, Réka (1999): “Emergence of scaling in random networks.” Science, 286(509), 509-512.

Barthes, Roland (1972): Mythologies. London: Hill and Wang.

Bartle, Richard A. (1996): “Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players who suit MUDS.” Retrieved December 21, 2007, from http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm.

Bartle, Richard A. (2004): Designing Virtual Worlds. Boston, MA: New Riders / Pearson Education.

Bartle, Richard A. (2007): “Making Places.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 158-163.

Bausinger, Hermann (1999): “Kleine Feste im Alltag: Zur Bedeutung des Fußballs.” In Schlicht, Wolfgang & Lang, Werner (eds.), Über Fußball. Ein Lesebuch zur wichtigsten Nebensache der Welt. Schorndorf: Hofmann. pp. 42–58.

Becker, Katrin (2007): “Pedagogy in Commercial Video Games.” In Gibson, David, Aldrich, Clark & Prensky, Marc (eds.), Games and Simulations in Online Learning. Research and Development Frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. pp. 21-48.

Benford, Steve (2007): “Can You See Me Now.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 258-259.

Benford, Steve, Magerkurth, Carsten & Ljungstrand, Peter (2005): “Bridging the Physical and Digital in Pervasive Gaming.” Communications of the ACM, 48(3), 54-58.

Björk, Staffan (2007): “Changing Urban Perspectives. Illuminating Cracks and Drawing Illusionary Lines.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 276-279.

Björk, Staffan & Holopainen, Jussi (2005): Patterns in Game Design. Hingham, MA: Charles River Media.

Björk, Staffan & Peitz, Johan (2007): “Pirates!” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 256-257

Blume, Torsten (2001): “Oder die Welt gerät Tempo, Tempo vollständig aus den Fugen.” In Bittner, Regina (ed.), Urbane Paradiese. Zur Kulturgeschichte modernen Vergnügens. Frankfurt/Main: Campus / Edition Bauhaus. pp. 36-52.

Blythe, Mark A. & Hassenzahl, Marc (2003): “The Semantics of Fun: Differentiating Enjoyable Experiences.” In Blythe, Mark A., Overbeeke, Kees, Monk, Andrew F. & Wright, Peter C. (eds.), Funology. From Usability to Enjoyment. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 91-100.

Boal, Augusto (1992): Games for Actors and Non-Actors. London: Routledge.

Bogost, Ian (2006): Unit Operations. An Approach to Videogame Criticism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bogost, Ian (2007): “Persuasion and Gamespace.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 304-307.

Bollnow, Otto Friedrich (1963): Mensch und Raum. Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln: Kohlhammer.

Bolter, Jay David & Grusin, Richard (2000): Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Borden, Iain (2001): Skateboarding, Space and The City. Architecture and the Body. Oxford and New York, NY: Berg.

Borden, Iain (2007): “Tactics for a Playful City.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture, and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 332-334.

Borges, Jorge Luis (1962): “The Garden of Forking Paths.” In Borges, Jorge Luis (ed.), Ficciones. New York, NY.

Boron, Dariusz Jacob (2007): “A Short History of Digital Gamespace.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 26-31.

Borries, Friedrich von (2004): Who’s afraid of Niketown? Nike Urbanism, Branding and the City of Tomorrow. Rotterdam: Episode Publishers.

Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (2007): Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing.

Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (2007): “Why should an architect care about computer games? And what can a game designer take from architecture?” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 10-13.

Boyd, Danah M. & Ellison, Nicole B. (2007): “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), Article 11.

Braun, Tibor (2004): “Hungarian Priority in Network Theory.” Science, 304(5678), 1745.

Brecht, Bertolt (1967): Gesammelte Werke in 20 Bänden. Hrsg. vom Suhrkamp Verlag in Zusammenarbeit mit Elisabeth Hauptmann. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp.

Brecht, Bertolt & Willett, John (1964): Brecht on theatre. The development of an aesthetic (1st ed.). New York, NY: Hill and Wang.

Brosterman, Norman (1997): Inventing Kindergarten. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams Publishers.

Buck, Linda & Axel, Richard (1991): “A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition.” Cell, 5;65(1), 175-187.

Bunschoten, Raoul (2007): “Scenario Games. Vital Techniques for Interactive City Planning.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 384-387.

Buxton, William A. & Sniderman, Richard (1980): “Iteration in the design of the human-computer interface.” In Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Association of Canada. pp. 72–81.

Buytendijk, Frederik Jacobus Johannes (1933): Wesen und Sinn des Spiels. Das Spielen des Menschen und der Tiere als Erscheinungsform der Lebenstriebe. Berlin: Kurt Wolff Verlag / Der Neue Geist.

Buytendijk, Frederik Jacobus Johannes (1995): “Das gewagte Spiel.” Deutsches Architektenblatt, 27(1), 12-14.

Caillois, Roger (1962): Man, Play, and Games. Glencoe, NY: The Free Press.

Caillois, Roger (2001): Man, Play, and Games. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Cardwell, Diane (January 10, 2007): “New York Tries to Think Outside the Sandbox.” The New York Times Retrieved May 17, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/10/nyregion/10play.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5....

Carrera, Fabio (1997): Campo Santa Maria Formosa, Venice, Italy: A case study of the application of visual, dynamic and scale-invariant analyses for the description, interpretation and evaluation of City Form. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning.

Chalmers, Matthew (2004): “Space/Place Reconsidered.” Proceedings of the second workshop on Space, Spatiality and Technology Retrieved February 1, 2008, from http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~matthew/papers/spaceSpatiality2004.pdf.

Chen, Jenova (2007): “Flow in Games (and Everything Else).” Communications of the ACM, 50(4), 31-34.

Cheok, Adrian David, Wei, Liu, Tat, Khoo Eng & Soon, James Teh Keng (2007): “Mixed Reality for Future Social and Physical Entertainment Systems.” In Magerkurth, Carsten & Röcker, Carsten (eds.), Pervasive Gaming Applications. A Reader for Pervasive Gaming Research vol. 2. Aachen: Shaker. pp. 127-158.

Ching, Francis D.K. (1995): A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Choy, Edward (2004): “Tilting at Windmills - The Theatricality of Role-playing Games.” In Montola, Markus & Stenros, Jaakko (eds.), Beyond Role and Play - Tools, Toys and Theory for Harnessing the Imagination. Helsinki: Solmukohta/Ropecon ry. pp. 53-65.

Christiaanse, Kees (2007): “Campus to City: Urban Design for Universities.” In Hoeger, Kerstin & Christiaanse, Kees (eds.), Campus and the City: Urban Design for the Knowledge Society. Zurich: gta Verlag. pp. 45-58.

Christiaanse, Kees & Lehnerer, Alexander (2007): “Rule-Based Urban Planning.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 372-375.

Chtcheglov, Ivan (1958): “Formulary for a New Urbanism.” Internationale Situationniste(1).

Crawford, Chris (1982/1997): “The Art of Computer Game Design.” Retrieved March 13, 2008, from http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/Coverpage.html.

Cross, Nigel (2007): “From a Design Science to a Design Discipline: Understanding Designerly Ways of Knowing and Thinking.” In Michel, Ralf (ed.), Design Research Now. Essays and Selected Projects. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 41-54.

Csíkszentmihályi, Mihályi (1975): Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of Work and Play in Games. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.

Csíkszentmihályi, Mihályi (1991): Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

Davidson, Drew (2007): “ICO. Holding Hands in a Castle.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 54-55.

Davidson, Drew (2008): stories in between: narratives and mediums @ play. Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

de Certeau, Michel (1984): The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

De Landa, Manuel (1991): War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. New York, NY: Swerve Editions / Zone Books.

Debord, Guy-Ernest (1955/2004): “Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography.” Les Lèvres Nues Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://library.nothingness.org/articles/SI/en/display/2.

Debord, Guy-Ernest (1958): “Theory of the Dérive.” Internationale Situationniste(2).

Debord, Guy-Ernest & Wolman, Gil (1956): “A User’s Guide to Détournement.” Les Lèvres Nues(8).

Deleuze, Gilles (1993): The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis Press.

Dena, Christy (2007): “Creating Alternate Realities. A Quick Primer.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 238-241.

Dibie, Pascal (1993): Wie man sich bettet. Von Bärenfellen, Prunkgemächern, Lasterhöhlen und Lotterbetten. Munich: dtv.

Diderot, Denis (1994): Selected Writings on Art and Literature. London: Penguin.

Digital Bridge (2006): “Crime Channel.” Retrieved August 26, 2006, from http://www.digitalbridge.org.uk/sdtv/crimechannel.php.

Disney, Walt (Director) (1966): EPCOT. Distributed by Walt Disney Corp.

Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. & Beale, Russell (1998): Human-Computer Interaction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Dourish, Paul (1999): “Where the footprints lead: Tracking down other roles for social navigation.” In Munro, Alan J., Höök, Kristina & Benyon, David (eds.), Social navigation of information space. London: Springer. pp. 15-34.

Drechsler, Wolfgang (2006): “The Contrade, the Palio, and the Ben Comune: Lessons from Siena.” TRAMES, 10(2), 99-125.

Dundes, Alan & Falassi, Alessandro (2005): La Terra in Piazza. An Interpretation of the Palio of Siena. Siena: nuova imagine.

Dunlop, Beth (1996): Building a Dream. The Art of Disney Architecture. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams.

Duran, Sheila (2006): ““J” is for Jungle Gym.” Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.winnetkahistory.org/gazette/winnetkaatoz/j.htm.

Ellsberg, Daniel (1961): “Risk, Ambiguity, and the Savage Axioms.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 75(4), 643-669.

Engeli, Maia (2003): “Levelsbyarchitects.” In GameSetandMatch. Proceedings of the GSM conference, TU Delft, December 13, 2001. pp. 51-59.

Ernst, Bruno (2007): The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher [25th Anniversary Edition]. Cologne: Evergreen / Taschen.

Ertz, Christoph (2007): “Wie von Geisterhand.” emotional pur. Das Europa-Park-Journal, (02), 28-29.

Falstein, Noah (2004): “Natural Funativity.” Retrieved May 7, 2008, from http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20041110/falstein_01.shtml.

Feireiss, Lukas (2007): “New Babylon Reloaded. Learning from the Ludic City ” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 218-221.

Fernández-Vara, Clara (2007): “Labyrinth and Maze. Video Game Navigation Challenges.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 74-77.

Fingerhuth, Carl (2004): Learning from China – das Tao der Stadt. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing.

Fishburn, Peter C. (1991): “Decision Theory: The Next 100 Years?” The Economic Journal, 101(404), 27-32.

Flanagan, Mary (2007): “The Sims. Suburban Utopia.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 150-151.

Flusser, Vilém (1997): Medienkultur. Frankfurt / Main: Fischer.

Fogg, B.J. (2003): Persuasive Technology. Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Foucault, Michel (1997): “Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias.” In Leach, Neil (ed.), Rethinking architecture: a reader in cultural theory. London: Routledge. pp. 350-356.

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Frasca, Gonzalo (2003): “Ludologists love stories, too: notes from a debate that never took place.” Retrieved April 11, 2008, from http://www.ludology.org/articles/Frasca_LevelUp2003.pdf.

Frederick, Matthew (2007): 101 things I learned in architecture school. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fritz, Jürgen (2004): Das Spiel verstehen. Eine Einführung in Theorie und Bedeutung. Weinheim: Juventa-Verlag.

Fröbe, Turit (2004): “Weg und Bewegung in der Architektur Le Corbusiers.” Wolkenkuckucksheim. Internationale Zeitschrift für Theorie und Wissenschaft der Architektur, 9(1).

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Gingold, Chaim (2003): Miniature Gardens & Magic Crayons: Games, Spaces, & Worlds. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

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Günzel, Stephan (2007): ““Eastern Europe, 2008”. Maps and Geopolitics in Video Games.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 444-449.

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Himmelsbach, Sabine (2007): “Ops Room. I Like Instant Nirvana.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 412-413.

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Hovestadt, Ludger (2007): “Why Games for Architecture?” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 335-339.

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Jenkins, Henry (2007): “Narrative Spaces.” In Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P. & Böttger, Matthias (eds.), Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level. Basel: Birkhäuser Publishing. pp. 56-60.

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2. Games

Abalone (1989), developed by Michel Lalet and Laurent Lévi, published by Abalone Games.

America’s Army (2002), developed by America’s Army Applications Team / MOVES Institute, published by US Army and Ubisoft.

Animal Crossing (2002), developed by Nintendo EAD, published by Nintendo.

Asteroids (1979), developed and published by Atari.

Bioplay5000 (2005), developed by Steffen P. Walz and CAAD MAS students, published by the ETH Zurich.

BioShock (2007), developed by 2K Boston/2K Australia, 2K Marin, published by 2K Games.

Can You See Me Now? (2001), developed and published by Blast Theory and Mixed Reality Laboratory, University of Nottingham.

Carcassonne (2000), developed by Klaus-Jürgen Wrede, published by Hans im Glück.

Civilization (1991), developed by MicroPose, published by MicroPose, Koei.

(Colossal Cave) Adventure (1976/1977), developed by Will Crowther & Don Woods.

Cruel 2 Be Kind (2006), developed and published by Jane McGonigal and Ian Bogost.

Frogger (1981), developed by Konami, published by Sega.

Das Spiel (1979), developed by Reinhold Wittig, published by Edition Perlhuhn. Published in English as The Game.

Dead Rising (2006), developed and published by Capcom.

Donkey Kong (1981), developed and published by Nintendo.

Doom (1993), developed by id Software, published by id Software and GT Interactive.

Dungeons & Dragons (1974), developed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson, published by Tactical Studies Rules.

Echochrome (2008), developed by SCE Japan Studio, published by Sony Computer Entertainment.

Grand Theft Auto IV (2008), developed by Rockstar North, published by Rockstar Games.

ETHGame (2005), developed by the ETHGame design class, Steffen P. Walz and Odilo Schoch, published by the ETH Zurich.

foursquare (2008), developed and published by Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai.

Free Running (2007), developed by Reef Entertainment, published by Rebellion.

Future Force Company Commander (2006), developed by Zombie, produced by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

God of War (2005), developed by SCE Studios Santa Monica, published by Computer Entertainment.

Guitar Hero (2005), developed by Harmonix Music Systems, Inc., published by RedOctane in partnership with Activision.

ICO (2001), developed by Team Ico, published by Sony Computer Entertainment.

Katamari Damacy (2004), developed and published by Namco.

Killer (1981), developed and published by Steve Jackson Games.

Kriegsspiel (1811), developed and published by Georg Leopold Baron of Reißwitz.

M.A.D. Countdown (2002), developed by Steffen P. Walz, Thomas Seibert, Tim Ruetz and Mobile Application Design students, published by Zurich University for the Arts.

Majestic (2001), developed by Anim-X, published by Electronic Arts.

Mirror’s Edge (2008), developed by EA Digital Illusions CE, published by Electronic Arts.

Ole Million Face (1920s), developed by Carey Orr, Chicago and published by Face Corporation. Also known as Changeable Charlie (Gaston Manufacturing).

OXO (1952), developed by Alexander S. Douglas, published by University of Cambridge.

Pac-Man (1980), developed by Namco, published by Namco and Midway.

PacManhattan (2004), developed by Frank Lantz with students, published by Interactive Telecommunications Program, New York University.

PainStation (2001), developed by Tilman Reiff and Volker Morawe, published by the Academy of Media Arts Cologne.

Payphone Warriors (2006), developed by Abe Burmeister, Gregory Trefry, Cory Forsyth et al., published by Come Out and Play Festival.

Pirates! (2000), developed and published by the PLAYstudio / Interactive Institute and Nokia Research Center Tampere.

PONG (1972), developed by Allan Alcorn, published by Atari.

PlayNET (1984), published by Quantum Link.

Prince of Persia: Sands of Time series (2003-2005), developed by Ubisoft Montreal, published by Ubisoft.

Rayman 2 (1999), developed and published by Ubisoft.

REXplorer (2007), developed by Steffen P. Walz, Rafael Ballagas et al., published by REX Museum, Regensburg Tourist Office, the ETH Zurich and RWTH Aachen University.

Rock Band (2007), developed by Harmonix Music Systems, Inc., published by MTV Games.

Scrabble (1948), originally created by Alfred Mosher Butts as Lexico in 1931, then trademarked as Scrabble by James Brunot in 1948; published by Hasbro / Mattel.

Second Life (2003), developed and published by Linden Research, formerly Linden Labs.

Settlers of Catan (1995), developed by Klaus Teuber, published by Kosmos.

Shadow of the Colossus (2005), developed by Team Ico, published by Sony Computer Entertainment.

SimCity (1989), developed by Will Wright, published by Maxis Software et al.

Space Invaders (1978), developed by Taito Corporation, published by Midway.

Spacewar! (1962), developed by Steve Russell and other students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Spirits of Split (2004), developed by Convivio student team and Steffen P. Walz, published by Convivio Summer School / Arts Academy of Split.

Spore (2008), developed by Maxis, published by Electronic Arts.

Super Mario Bros. (1985), developed by Nintendo EAD, published by Nintendo.

Telespiele (1977-1981), developed by Holm Dressler, Wolfgang Penk, Thomas Gottschalk et al., broadcast by S3, ZDF & ARD, and produced by SWF.

Tempest (1981), developed and published by Atari.

Tetris (1985), developed by Alexey Pajitnov and Vadim Gerasimov, published by Various.

THE aMAZEing LABYRINTH (board game) (1986), developed by Max Kobbert, published by Ravensburger.

The Journey to Wild Divine (2003) published by the Journey to Wild Divine.

The Sims (2000), developed by Maxis, published by Electronic Arts.

Tombstone Hold ’Em (2005), developed and published by 42 Entertainment.

Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater (1999), developed by Neversoft, published by Activision.

Wii Sports (2006), developed by Nintendo, published by Nintendo.

World of Warcraft (2004), developed by Blizzard Entertainment, published by Vivendi Universal.

Yohoho! Puzzle Pirates (2003), developed by Three Rings Design, published by Three Rings Design and Ubisoft.

Zork (1980), originally developed by MIT students 1977-1979, then Infocom; published by Personal Software.

3. Films and Television Shows

Dawn of the Dead (1978), directed and written by George A. Romero, distributed by United Film Distribution Company et al., USA.

Lost (TV series) (2004 - 2010), created by Jeffrey Lieber, J.J. Abrams and Damon Lindelof, broadcast on ABC, USA.

Metropolis (1927), directed by Fritz Lang, written by Thea von Harbou and Fritz Lang, distributed by UFA / Paramount Pictures, Germany.

Six Degrees (2006 - 2007), created by Raven Metzner and Stuart Zicherman, broadcast on ABC, USA.

Six Degrees of Separation (1993), directed by Fred Schepisi, written by John Guare, distributed by MGM/UA, USA.

Star Trek (TV series) (1966 - 2005), originally created by Gene Roddenberry, USA.

Star Trek (film series) (1979 - present), directed by multiple directors and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Based on the Star Trek television series originally created by Gene Roddenberry in 1966, USA.

Star Wars (film series) (1977 - 2005), initially created by George Lucas, distributed by 20th Century Fox, USA.

Telespiele (1977 - 1981), created by Holm Dressler, Wolfgang Penk, Thomas Gottschalk et al., broadcast by S3, ZDF & ARD, produced by SWF, Germany.

The Promise of Play (2000), directed and written by David Kennard and Stuart Brown, produced by The Institute for Play and Independent Communications Associates Productions, Canada.

The Third Man (1949), directed by Carol Reed, written by Graham Greene, distributed by British Lion Films, United Kingdom.

The Truman Show (1998), directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Nicol, distributed by Paramount Pictures, USA.

[1] A trailer and other materials are available at http://rexplorer.arch.ethz.ch.

[2] Note that the original voice acting is in German, and that passages from the game have been translated by the author.

[3] Note that throughout this book, texts from the book Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level will be frequently referenced. In fact, Space Time Play – co-edited by this author with two colleagues and published by Birkhäuser Publishers in the fall of 2007 – can be considered a reading prerequisite to and/or a vademecum for this book.

[4] Games such as REXplorer are often and interchangeably called “ubiquitous” or “pervasive” games. IBM introduced the term “pervasive computing” back in 1998 to describe a research and business concept by which computers are embedded into our surroundings. Ten years earlier, the research concept of “ubiquitous computing” had been introduced by Mark Weiser from XEROX Parc (Weiser 1996). The term encompasses the “third wave in computing” (ibid.), in which one person interacts with many computers – as opposed to both the mainframe stage of computing, during which many people shared one computer, and the PC phase, in which a one-to-one rationale was prevalent (i.e. one computer per person – or, of course, one person per computer if we regarded the computer as a resource). Mattern has described the differentiation of the terms ubiquitous computing and pervasive computing as follows: “While [Mark] Weiser uses the term “Ubiquitous Computing” rather in an academic-idealistic way, describing an unobtrusive, human-centric vision of technology, the term “Pervasive Computing” has been coined by the industry with a slightly different emphasis: This term also centers around the idea of permeating and omnipresent information processing, but with the specific short-term goal of utilizing it in e-commerce scenarios and web-based business processes” (Mattern 2003 cit. after Hinske et al. 2007:24).

[5] In Germany, Amstrad computers such as the CPC 464, the CPC 664, and the CPC 6128 with a doubled memory of 128K were marketed by the Schneider company and branded as Schneider computers.

[6] See http://www.qlinklives.org for a historical record maintained by one of the Q-Link co-founders.

[7] Cf. www.kaisersrot.com

[8] In this context, cf. Asendorf (2004), who discusses movement and the concept of “liquid spatiality” in modern architecture.

[9] Note that in the German language original, Bollnow uses the term “Spielraum,” meaning “play space” or “play.”

[10] Although often defined, interactivity is an ambiguous term whose exact meaning can be hard to capture; a comparison of the very different definitions that have been offered over time reveals as much. In the groundbreaking German book Interaktivität. Ein transdisziplinärer Schlüsselbegriff, edited by Leggewie and Bieber (2004), researchers from diverse backgrounds discuss the concept from their individual scholarly perspectives, which range from the anthropological to the psychological. By comparing the book contributions, Leggewie and Bieber find that the term itself is fuzzy, yet profound, varying in definition and usage from article to article.

Although their book reveals a lack of definitorial grip, Leggewie and Bieber identify three key terms which appear throughout the contributions and which can function as interactivity’s begriffliche Objektträger (2004:14), in English, conceptual slide (Raum, Körper und Interface (ibid.), in English, Space, Body, and Interface (translated by spw)). Note how the three conceptual lenses of player, space, and object correspond with the differentiations we have identified in our discussion of movement and rhythm in architectural theory, in dance notation, and in the section dedicated to the notion of play-as-movement and to-and-fro between player and play-other as proposed by Buytendijk.

[11] German: “kommt durch seine Reizkonfiguration den motivationalen Erwartungen der Spieler in spezifischer Weise entgegen” (Fritz 2004:47).

[12] Note that the German term Fritz uses is Selbstentäusserung, which would literally translate to self-disposal and which, in both English and German, can also have a negative connotation. In fact, Fritz means to describe a positive feeling and implicitly refers to the concept of flow, which, as we have described, can cause self-detachment, cf. Csizszentmihalyi (1990).

[13] Cf. cf. http://www.cs.unm.edu/~dlchao/flake/doom/chi/chi.html.

[14] Concerning the “laughing” entry in the Table: it is worth mentioning that in countries like India and China, laughing clubs train members to indulge in “forced” laughter for stress relief. See, for example, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-11/08/content_728096.htm.

[15] Note that Csikszentmihalyi proposes that not all of the factors need to be present in order for a person to experience flow.

[16] Note that console games are, at least visually and aurally, fully designed environments wherein even unpredictability is predictable given that the player knows and comprehends the rule base and event catalog of the game.

[17] Video game designer Keita Takahashi, creator of the PlayStation 2 ball-rolling puzzle-action game Katamari Damacy (2004) – from the Japanese , or Katamari Damashii, literally, “clump spirit” – envisions designing undulating physical playgrounds in order to overcome the traditional playground’s flatness (cf. Hermida (2005)).

[18] Cf. http://www.din.de.

[19] Compare this to Borden’s analysis of skateboarding architecture as an entity co-created by skater and built landscape.

[20] Short for Global Positioning System. GPS is a satellite navigational system formed by 24 middle earth orbiting satellites and their concurrent receivers on earth. GPS was developed and is still maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense, though it was originally named NAVSTAR (Navigation System with Timing and Ranging). By exchanging data among themselves and with a receiver (mounted, for example, in a car), a minimum of three satellites enable the GPS system to calculate the longitude and latitude of the receiver, as well as its height (what does it mean to calculate the receiver’s height?). You can find a variety of GPS and geodetic related resources at the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Geodetic Survey Website: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/geodetic_links.shtml.

[21] Translation taken from the revised Logan-Adams translation of Utopia published by the Cambridge University Press in 2002.

[22] Note that some of these activities are illegal and inherently dangerous. Organizations such as the Berliner Unterwelten e.V., society for the exploration and documentation of subterranean architecture, offer guided Berlin-from-below tours, for example, and in the mid 19th century, the Pneumatic Despatch Company built a short-lived transportation system in London with tubes large enough to fit passenger carriages (Samuda 1841).

[23] A simple Java based level editor can be found at http://www.nhk.or.jp/digista/blog/works/20070517_fujiki/index.html.

[24] Its roots, however, can be traced to the ancient Roman cubiculum.

[25] Original German, translated by author: “Was ich ganz gut finde ist, dass selbst wenn man ein rundes ‚C’ macht, das Gerät selbst das noch erkennen würde – recht grosse Toleranz auf jeden Fall.” Note that playtester names have been changed.

[26] Original German, translated by author: “Wir hatten Spass daran, dass es schwierig war, es hinzumalen. Wenn es auf Anhieb klappt, dann ist es ja langweilig. Es darf nicht zu einfach sein.”

[27] Translated by the author from the original German: “(...) heute noch [ist, spw] die Wohnung eine Höhle im Berg (und ist es vielleicht umso mehr, je mehr die modernen Großstädte sich zu künstlichen Zementgebirgen entwickeln).” One example of the inverse – a naturally carved cave that mutates into a building – is the Predjama cave castle in Slovenia, built within a Karst cave mouth in a limestone cliff and featuring a Gothic façade.

[28] Find The Republic as a free ebook at http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1497.

[29] Ibid.

[30] The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (known by the acronym CAVE) is an immersive virtual reality environment first developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois in Chicago back in 1992. The name CAVE refers to Plato’s cave allegory, of course, which is appropriate for a site where perception, physicality, and illusion meet – and, in this modern CAVE, technology too. In this room-sized cube environment, rear-projected wall images, stereoscopic LCD shutter glasses, and the movements of the CAVE visitor convey a three-dimensional image. Today, CAVEs and CAVE-like environments are being used at universities and research facilities worldwide.

[31] For more, see the following article about Hadid and her IMM Ideal House: http://www.bauunternehmen.com/artikel_34567_ideal+house+cologne+.htm (German language only).

[32] Cf. http://www.madcountdown.com.

[33] Company Creative Home Engineering sells recessable book shelves, rotating fireplaces, bookcases, and custom built furniture, cf. http://www.hiddenpassageway.com.

[34] Cf. http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Exterior/Passetto/Passetto.htm.

[35] Note: This section stands out from all other sections because its argument is presented from a computer game perspective, as opposed to a physical space perspective. As you will see, this argumentative path is necessary in order to examine the nature of the map-like and mapped play-ground, and is valid because maps are, in themselves, virtual, abstracted, representative spaces, just like computer games.

[36] Bark mulch is not recommended by the author, as it contributes to mold build-up.

[37] The history of the climbing structure – trademarked in 1920 as the Jungle gym – is interesting, as it feeds back into the history of the playground. Jungle gym inventor Sebastian Hinton was a lawyer and son of mathematician Charles Howard Hinton. Hinton is mentioned in Jorge Luis Borges’ short story The Secret Miracle and in Alan Moore’s graphic novel From Hell mostly because he was interested in a fourth dimension and coined the term tesseract to describe a four-dimensional hypercube structure in which four lines spring from each vertex to other vertices. Most likely attempting to build a physical model of the hypercube, Hinton constructed a three-dimensional, multiple-cube bamboo framework in his backyard in Japan while Sebastian Hinton was still a child. Hinton senior theorized that people would never comprehend the fourth dimension while they led their lives in the second, always moving on flat planes. He believed that if people became more comfortable in a real three-dimensional space, the intellectual step to the fourth dimension would be easier. Mimicking a Cartesian-coordinate system in mathematics, Hinton named one set of horizontal poles X1, X2, X3, etc. Those horizontal poles at right angles to the X poles were Y1, Y2, Y3, etc., while the vertical poles were designated as Z1, Z2, Z3, and so on. Hinton senior would then call out coordinates, “X2, Y4, Z3, Go!”, and his children – including Sebastian – would scramble for that intersection. Later, Sebastian explained that he and his siblings were happy to humor their father with these drills, but what they really enjoyed was simply climbing, hanging, chasing, and playing like monkeys. And because that type of play was so enjoyable, he eventually decided he wanted to build such a construction for his own children; the jungle gym was the result (Duran 2006).

Sebastian Hinton’s wife was Carmelita Chase Hinton, who founded the progressive The Putney boarding school in the 1930s. Shortly before she married Hinton, she had been Jane Addams’ secretary at the Hull House, where she took a two-year course on playgrounds (McIntosh Lloyd 1988).

[38] Cf. http://www.nsc.org/resources/factsheets/hl/playground_safety.aspx.

[39] Cf. http://www.intelligentplay.co.uk.

[40] The full text of the book can be read online at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16221/16221-h/16221-h.htm.

[41] Cf. http://www.imaginationplayground.org.

[42] For game rules, see http://www.cruelgame.com.

[43] First translated into English and published in the US much later, cf. Sitte (1945).

[44] Cf. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~mgamer/Etexts/biographia.html (a Web version of chapter XIV of Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria, wherein the phrase appears).

[45] Translated by the author from the original German: “Das Lehrstück lehrt dadurch, daß es gespielt, nicht dadurch, daß es gesehen wird. Prinzipiell ist für das Lehrstück kein Zuschauer nötig, doch kann er natürlich verwertet werden. Es liegt dem Lehrstück die Erwartung zugrunde, daß die Spieler durch die Durchführung bestimmter Handlungsweisen, Einnahme bestimmter Handlungen, Wiedergabe bestimmter Reden und so weiter gesellschaftlich beeinflußt werden” (Brecht 1967, Bd. 17, S. 1024).

[46] The author participated in the 2002 Hamburg, Germany version of YOU – The City, called DU / Die Stadt and directed by Judith Wilske, cf. http://www.att-hh.de/archiv/du/.

[47] Cf. http://www.rimini-protokoll.de/website/en/project_143.html.

[48] Improvisational theatre in Europe has a long tradition. The Commedia dell’arte (CDA)– or, more to the point, Commedia all’improvviso – originated in Italy in the 16th century, emerging from the tradition of Medieval traveling theater troupes. In the CDA, we find typified characters such as the Harlequin, who often invites the audience to participate in the improvisational play, which usually takes place outdoors, using little or no props and some pre-scripted dramaturgy (Richards and Richards 1990).

Whereas in the CDA, improvisation is transformed into a semi-regulated performance technique, the impromptu theatre tradition on which the CDA was based can still be experienced throughout southern Germany and Austria in the so-called “Volkstheaters.” These types of theaters are similar to community theatres, but are more traditionally oriented and often stage the same piece year after year.

[49] Cf. the Declaration of Principles of the International Theatre of the Oppressed Organization at: http://www.theatreoftheoppressed.org/en/index.php?nodeID=23.

[50] For an overview of social anthropological research related to social network sites, cf. Boyd and Ellison (2007).

[51] The original Latin name of the Colosseum – or Coliseum – was Amphitheatrum Flavium, as construction took place during the reign of the Flavian emperors Vespasianus and Titus between 70-72 and 80 AD. One myth holds that it was designed by a Christian by the name of Gaudentius, though Virgil, who died many years before the Colosseum was built, held that the identity of the Colosseum’s architect was unclear. What is clear is that the construction required an enormous amount of technical and practical architectural and crafting expertise (Hopkins and Beard 2005:144ff.). This expertise must also have been responsible for the designs that are not immediately apparent to the on-site observer – namely, the underground Maze of preparations and storage rooms, of corridors and hoisting shafts, and of lift wells to the trapdoors above, as well as the intricate network of drains (2005:136ff.). In a way, we can think of these structures and technologies as the game mechanics, pumping beasts to the surface and allowing for surprising opponent
spawning.

[52] Of course, the stadium can be inscenated as a spectacle, too. Watching the opening of the Olympic Games in Beijing, the author had the distinct impression that he was looking at a red-glowing, almost skeletal Bird’s Nest stadium wearing a giant Olympic torch, reminiscent of scenes from The Lord of the Rings movies.

[53] Of course, a field can be used for throwing discs too, as it is in Frisbee and flying disc, cf. Morrison and Kennedy (2006).

[54] Cf. http://www.dubailand.ae.

[55] Cf. the German language Wikipedia entry on the Narrenzunft Oberndorf at http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narrenzunft_Oberndorf.

[56] An English language version of the text can be found online at http://www.noteaccess.com/Texts/Alberti/.

[57] Translated from the German original by the author: “So viel Schönheit ist auf diesem einen Fleckchen Welt vereinigt, dass kein Maler noch je Schöneres ersonnen hat an architektonischen Hintergründen, kein Theater noch je Sinneberückenderes gesehen hat, als es hier in Wirklichkeit zu erstehen vermochte.”

[58] Cf. http://www.orivenezia.it.

[59] An entertaining gameplay strategy for the maze that is Venice
can be found at http://www.initaly.com/regions/veneto/ovensty.htm.

[60] Kleinfeld found, upon re-visiting Milgram’s original research notes stored at Yale University, that the claim was not supported by Milgram’s experimental results: 95% of the letters sent out had failed to reach their targets.

[61] Cf. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0009190/.

[62] Known as Chinese Whispers in the UK and Stille Post in German-speaking countries.

[63] Cf. http://www.wired.com/cars/energy/news/2008/06/hypermilers09.

[64] Martin Knöll, an architect and doctoral student at the University of Stuttgart co-supervised by the author, and the author are currently preparing the production of YourParkour, a mobile and pervasive game to fight obesity, targeting 12-13 year olds.

[65] Note: For security reasons, we opted against headphones. A mono headphone was also excluded because of the additional cables that the tourist information staff would have had to look after.

[66] As a side note, it is amusing to consider how in this context, the term “utopia” – as in, “a non-place” – takes on a new meaning.

[67] Pirates! was developed in 2000 at the PLAYstudio of the Interactive Institute together with researchers from Nokia Research Center Tampere. In Pirates!, players roleplay ship captains in physical space who “sail” (virtual) seas by moving about in physical space with a handheld computer (their “ship”), seeking (virtual) islands, collecting resources, fighting monsters, and completing game quests and quest tasks. The gameplace of Pirates! must be equipped with WLAN, which the ship client uses to communicate with the game server, and a short range radio system. Stand-alone radio beacons in the gameplace represent the islands to which the players are sailing as well as serving to detect player proximity. Senders attached to the handheld computers allow the system to detect players in range of one another. Thus “what makes Pirates! different from ordinary computer games is that the movement within the game is prompted by the player’s movement in the real world” (Björk and Ljungstrand 2007:256).